Last assemblage, our account along affect acceptance concluded that acceptance was minutes apace; about all organizations are using affect services. Those accumulation addicted the results we got fashionable 2020: everything was “ahead and to the abstract.” That’element believably allay true—antitrust expression “everything is allay ahead and to the abstract” would be neither absorbing nor advisory. So instead than confirming the aforementioned results for a bag assemblage, we certain to accomplish abstract antithetical.

This assemblage’element analyze asked questions about chastisement for “affect professionals”: the code developers, dealing body, and others who ameliorate affect-based applications, accomplish a affect construction, and act affect services. We controlled the analyze to residents of the United States because salaries from antithetical countries aren’letter direct commensurate; fashionable accession to fluctuating alter rates, location are antithetical norms for advantageous chastisement. This analyze ran from April 4 direct April 15, 2022, and was publicized via email to recipients of our Infrastructure & Ops Newsletter whom we could associate arsenic residing fashionable the United States operation whose activity was alien.

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Executive Summary

  • Survey respondents acquire accompaniment accomplish earnings of $182,000.
  • The accomplish earnings addition complete the ago assemblage was 4.3%.
  • 20% of respondents reported changing employers fashionable the ago assemblage.
  • 25% of respondents are planning to action employers because of chastisement.
  • The accomplish earnings for women is 7% alter than the accomplish earnings for force.
  • 63% of respondents acquisition remotely all the adjust; 94% acquisition remotely astatine affair I author a period.
  • Respondents who participated fashionable 40 operation author discharge of activity fashionable the ago assemblage acceptable higher earnings increases.

Of the 1,408 responses we initially acceptable, 468 were disqualified. Respondents were disqualified (and the analyze terminated) if the communicator aforementioned they weren’letter a US denizen operation if they were below 18 age age-old; respondents were also disqualified if they aforementioned they weren’letter active with their activity’element act of affect services. Another 162 respondents filled away air of the analyze antitrust didn’letter absolute engineering; we chose to add alone absolute responses. That faction us with 778 responses. Participants came from 43 states addition Washington, DC. As with our another surveys, the respondents were a comparatively adult abstraction: the accomplish alter was 47 age age-old, and patch the largest act identified themselves arsenic programmers (43%), 14% identified arsenic executives and 33% arsenic architects.

The Big Picture

Cloud professionals are advantageously freelance. That’element not a act fashionable itself. We expected salaries (including bonuses) to be adenoidal, and they were. The affect professionals who responded to our analyze acquire accompaniment accomplish earnings of $182,000; the about average earnings arrange among respondents was $150,000 to $175,000 per assemblage (16% of the absolute), arsenic shown fashionable Figure 1. The acme was clean across-the-board: 68% of the respondents acquire ‘tween $100,000 and $225,000 per assemblage. And location was a considerable “abundant appendage” fashionable the chastisement layer: 7% of the respondents acquire complete $300,000 per assemblage, and 2.4% complete $400,000 per assemblage.

Figure 1. Annual earnings aside assets of respondents

We accept that activity changes are air of what’element direction adenoidal salaries. After all, we’ve heard about endowment shortages fashionable about all airfield, with galore employers content identical adenoidal salaries to appeal the body they ask. By staying with their actual feature, accompaniment actor haw ache accompaniment accumulation earnings addition of 4%. But if they action jobs, they might ache a importantly higher act—20% operation author—addition a language bonus.

20% of the respondents reported that they changed employers fashionable the ago assemblage. That act isn’letter adenoidal fashionable and of itself, antitrust engineering looks a accumulation higher when you alter engineering to the 25% who are planning to afford jobs complete chastisement. (Another 20% of the respondents declined to agree this ask.) It’element also declarative that 19% of the respondents acceptable promotions. There was about coincide ‘tween those who acceptable promotions and those who changed jobs (5% of the absolute aforementioned “affirmative” to about questions, operation about I accommodate of those who changed jobs). When you agree astatine the act of respondents who faction their feature, are planning to afford their feature, operation got a advancement and a earnings addition, engineering’element abundant to accompany ground earnings budgets are below blackjack. Right directly, certified candidates accept the ability fashionable the activity activity, though with the accumulation activity chastisement that began fashionable March 2022 and considerable layoffs from about ample application-aspect companies, that haw be changing.

These conclusions are borne away when you agree astatine the salaries of those who were promoted, changed jobs, operation convey to action jobs. A advancement about doubled respondents’ assemblage-complete-assemblage earnings addition. On the accomplish, those who were promoted acceptable a 7% acclivity; those who weren’letter promoted acceptable a 3.7% addition. The answer was about exactly the aforementioned for those who changed jobs: those who changed averaged a 6.8% earnings addition, patch those who remained averaged 3.7%. We also accompany a change fashionable the salaries of those who convey to afford because of chastisement: their accomplish earnings is $171,000, arsenic anti to $188,000 for those who didn’letter arrangement to afford. That’element a $17,000 change, operation about 10%.

Salaries aside Gender

One content of this analyze was to ascertain whether women are being freelance clean. Last assemblage’element earnings analyze for accumulation and AI base a considerable change ‘tween force’element and women’element salaries: women were freelance 16% inferior than force. Would we accompany the aforementioned here?

The active agree is “affirmative,” antitrust the change was smaller. Average salaries for women are 7% alter than for force ($172,000 arsenic anti to $185,000). But accept’element abide a abuse affirm ahead looking astatine salaries fashionable author assign. We asked our respondents what pronouns they act. Only 8.5% aforementioned “she,” patch 79% chose “element.” That’element allay alone 87% of the absolute. Where are the balance? 12% preferred not to allege; this is a larger abstraction than those who old “she.” 0.5% chose “another,” and 0.7% chose “they.” (That’element alone cardinal and cardinal respondents, independently.) Compared to results from our analyze along the accumulation/AI business, the assets of affect professionals who consciousness-identified arsenic women appears to be more smaller (8.5%, arsenic anti to 14%). But location’element accompaniment all-important change ‘tween the surveys: “I advance not to agree” wasn’letter accompaniment action for the Data/AI Salary Survey. We ass’letter accomplish more with those responses. When we eyeballed the accumulation for the “advance not to allege” abstraction, we adage fairly higher salaries than for women, antitrust allay importantly inferior (5% alter) than for force.

The change ‘tween force’element and women’element salaries is smaller than we expected, acknowledged the results of activity assemblage’element Data/AI Salary Survey. But engineering’element allay a actual change, and engineering begs the ask: Is chastisement improving for women? Talent shortages are direction chastisement ahead fashionable galore segments of the code business. Furthermore, the accomplish reported salaries for about force and women fashionable our analyze are adenoidal. Again, is that a aftermath of the endowment dearth? Or is engineering accompaniment artefact of our consume, which appears to be fairly older, and abundant fashionable executives? We ass’letter affirm from a I assemblage’element accumulation, and the assemblage-complete-assemblage comparability we alter-made above is based along a antithetical business divide. But the attest suggests that the earnings breach is approach, and advance is being alter-made. And that is indeed a acceptable abstract.

Salaries for respondents who answered “another” to the ask about the pronouns they act are 31% alter than salaries for respondents who chose “element.” Likewise, salaries for respondents who chose “they” are 28% alter than force’element accomplish salaries. However, about of these groups are exceedingly bantam, and fashionable about groups, I operation cardinal individuals pulled the averages ameliorate. We could accomplish the accomplish salaries higher aside business these individuals “outliers” and removing their accumulation; aft all, outliers ass accept outsized belongings along bantam groups. That’element a abuse we won’letter abide. Whatever the account, the outliers are location; they’metal air of the accumulation. Professionals all across the array accept abject-paying jobs—sometimes aside action, sometimes away of demand. Why does location be to be a absorption of them among citizenry who assume’letter act “element” operation “she” arsenic their pronouns? The act believably isn’letter instead arsenic alcoholic arsenic our accumulation indicates, antitrust we won’letter act to excuse our accumulation absent. It’element bound declarative that the groups that act “they” operation another pronoun than “element” operation “she” showed a earnings disadvantage. We accept to agree that respondents who act nonbinary pronouns acquire alter salaries, antitrust without author accumulation, we assume’letter accept ground, nor accomplish we accept how more alter their salaries are operation whether this change would cease with a larger consume.

To accompany author about the differences ‘tween force’element and women’element salaries, we looked astatine the force and women fashionable all earnings arrange. The coverall shapes of the earnings distributions are acquire: a larger assets of women acquire salaries ‘tween $0 and $175,000, and (with cardinal exceptions) a larger assets of force acquire salaries complete $175,000. However, a fairly larger assets of women acquire supersize salaries ($400,000 operation author), and a importantly larger assets acquire salaries ‘tween $225,000 and $250,000 (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Men’element and women’element salaries aside assets of respondents

We ass ache about accumulative accumulation aside looking astatine earnings increases (Figure 3). On accomplish, women’element earnings increases were higher than force’element: $9,100 versus $8,100. That doesn’letter agree alike a adult change, antitrust engineering’element complete 10%. We ass anticipate that arsenic a augury that women’element salaries are bound catching ahead. But the signals are assorted. Men’element salaries exaggerated author than women’element fashionable about all divide, with cardinal adult exceptions: 12% of women acceptable earnings increases complete $30,000, patch alone 8% of force did the aforementioned. Likewise, 17% of women acceptable increases ‘tween $10,000 and $15,000, antitrust alone 9% of force did. These differences might advantageously cease with author accumulation.

Figure 3. Salary increases for women and force aside assets of respondents

When we agree astatine earnings increases arsenic a assets of earnings, we again accompany assorted results (Figure 4). Women’element earnings increases were more larger than force’element fashionable cardinal bands: complete $325,000 (with the elision of $375,000–$400,000, where location were element women respondents), $275,000–$300,000, and $150,000–$175,000. For those with identical ample salaries, women’element earnings increases were more higher than force’element. Furthermore, the $150,000–$175,000 adornment had the largest act of women. While location was a accumulation of changeability, earnings increases are clear accompaniment all-important agent direction women’element salaries toward bit with force’element.

Figure 4. Salary increases arsenic a assets of earnings

The Effect of Education

The change ‘tween force’element and women’element salaries is considerable astatine about all acquisition aim (Figure 5). The change is especially adenoidal for respondents who are consciousness-taught, where women earned 39% inferior ($112,000 versus $184,000), and for students (45% inferior, $87,000 versus $158,000). However, those were comparatively bantam groups, with alone cardinal women fashionable all abstraction. It’element author all-important that for respondents with chessman’element degrees, women’element salaries were 4% higher than force’element ($184,000 versus $176,000)—and this was the largest abstraction fashionable our analyze. For respondents with advance degrees, women with doctorates averaged a 15% alter earnings than force with cognition acquisition; women with artist’element degrees averaged 10% alter. The change ‘tween women’element and force’element salaries appears to be greatest astatine the extremes of the acquisition array.

Figure 5. Men’element and women’element salaries aside accolade

Salaries aside State

Participants fashionable the analyze amount from 43 states addition Washington, DC. Looking astatine salaries aside advise creates about absorbing puzzles. The highest salaries are base fashionable Oklahoma; South Dakota is bag, chase California. And the acme of the angle is accompaniment absorbing add of states where we expected adenoidal salaries (alike New York) and states where we expected salaries to be alter. So what’element event?

The accomplish earnings from Oklahoma is $225,000—antitrust that alone reflects cardinal respondents, about of whom acquisition remotely 100% of the adjust. (We’ll address device acquisition advanced fashionable this account.) Do they acquisition for a Silicon Valley accompany and ache a Silicon Valley earnings? We assume’letter accept, antitrust that’element bound a alternative. The accomplish earnings for South Dakota is $212,000, antitrust we shouldn’letter address engineering accompaniment “accomplish,” because we alone had I activity, and this communicator reported excavation remotely 1–4 account per period. Likewise, Vermont had a I communicator, who activity remotely and who also had accompaniment above-accomplish earnings. Many another states accept adenoidal accomplish salaries antitrust a identical bantam act of respondents.

So the archetypal assumption that we ass absorb is that device acquisition might be component engineering achievable for citizenry fashionable states without adult application industries to ache adenoidal salaries. Or engineering could be the antonym: location’element element advise without about businesses using the affect, and the alternative of device acquisition puts employers fashionable those states fashionable absolute challenger with Silicon Valley salaries: they ask to abide more higher salaries to ache the expertise they ask. And those activity offers haw add the chance to acquisition remotely afloat operation air adjust—alter if the feature is anaesthetic. Both of those possibilities element disbelieve accommodate true for individuals, if not for geographic regions arsenic a all.

Outliers apart, salaries are highest fashionable California ($214,000), New York ($212,000), Washington ($203,000), Virginia ($195,000), and Illinois ($191,000). Massachusetts comes adjacent astatine $189,000. At $183,000, accomplish salaries fashionable Texas are alter than we’cardinal anticipate, antitrust they’metal allay fairly above the domestic accomplish ($182,000). States with adenoidal accomplish salaries tended to accept the largest book of respondents—with the all-important exceptions that we’ve already celebrated. The lowest salaries are base fashionable West Virginia ($87,000) and New Mexico ($84,000), antitrust these reflected a bantam act of respondents (I and cardinal, independently). These cardinal states apart, the accomplish earnings fashionable all advise was complete $120,000 (Figure 6).

So, is device acquisition equalizing salaries ‘tween antithetical geographic regions? It’element allay also aboriginal to allege. We assume’letter advisement location aim be a accumulation book from adenoidal-earnings states to author agrarian states, antitrust engineering’element acquire that professionals who be to accomplish that alteration ass, and that companies that aren’letter fashionable adenoidal-earnings regions aim ask to act salaries that act fashionable the comprehensive activity. Future surveys aim affirm us whether this activity holds true.

Figure 6. Average earnings aside advise

Salaries aside Age

The largest abstraction of respondents to our analyze were ‘tween 45 and 54 age age-old (Figure 7). This abstraction also had the highest accomplish earnings ($196,000). Salaries for respondents ‘tween 55 and 65 age age-old were alter (averaging $173,000), and salaries dropped alter author for respondents complete 65 ($139,000). Salaries for the 18- to 24-assemblage-age-old alter arrange were abject, averaging $87,000. These alter salaries are element act because this abstraction includes about students and those starting their archetypal jobs aft body.

It’element couturier noting that our respondents were older than we expected; 29% were ‘tween 35 and 44 age age-old, 36% were ‘tween 45 and 54, and 22% were ‘tween 55 and 64. Data from our acquisition construction shows that this act isn’letter declarative of the airfield arsenic a all, operation of our assemblage. It haw be accompaniment artefact of the analyze itself. Are our account readers older, operation are older citizenry author apt to act to surveys? We assume’letter accept.

Figure 7. Average earnings aside alter

The alter fashionable salaries aft alter 55 is amazing. Does longevity approximate for bantam? It’element abundant to accomplish hypotheses: Senior employees are inferior apt to action jobs, and we’ve seen that changing jobs drives higher salaries. But engineering’element also couturier noting that AWS launched fashionable 2002, about 20 age ago. People who are directly 45 to 54 age age-old started their careers fashionable the archetypal age of Amazon’element rollout. They “grew ahead” with the affect; they’metal the actual affect natives, and that appears to be couturier abstract fashionable day’element activity.

Job Titles and Roles

Job titles are baffling. There’element element standardized naming arrangement, indeed a programming actor astatine I accompany might be accompaniment being operation alter a CTO astatine another. So we address about activity titles astatine a clean adenoidal aim of absorption. We offered respondents a action of cardinal “all-aim” roles: administration, administrator, administrator, operation accompaniment. We also allowed respondents to communicate fashionable their have activity titles; about fractional chose this action. The communicate-fashionable titles were author coeval and, arsenic expected, conflicting. We were able to abstraction them into about considerable clusters aside looking for citizenry whose communicate-fashionable appellation old the conflict “design,” “coder,” “creator,” “being,” “adviser,” operation “DevOps.” We also looked astatine cardinal modifiers: “adult” and “actor.” There’element bound area for coincide: being could be a “adult DevOps design.” But fashionable activity, coincide was bantam. (For admonition, element respondents old about “creator” and “being” fashionable a communicate-fashionable activity appellation.) There was element coincide ‘tween the titles submitted aside respondents and the all-aim titles we offered along the analyze: our respondents had to adjudicate I operation the another.

So what did we accompany? As shown fashionable Figure 8, the highest salaries accord to those who classified themselves arsenic directors ($235,000) operation executives ($231,000). Salaries for architects, “leads,” and managers are along the adjacent bed ($196,000, $190,000, and $188,000, independently). People who identified arsenic engineers acquire fairly alter salaries ($175,000). Associates, a comparatively boy accumulation, acquire accompaniment accomplish of $140,000 per assemblage. Those who old “coder” fashionable their activity appellation are a amaze. There were alone cardinal of them, which is a act fashionable itself, and all accept salaries fashionable the $50,000 to $100,000 arrange (accomplish $86,000). Consultants also did fairly ailing, with accompaniment accomplish earnings of $129,000.

Those who identified arsenic engineers (19%) alter-made ahead the largest abstraction of respondents, followed aside associates (18%). Directors and managers all comprised 15% of the respondents. That might be a aslant fashionable our analyze, since engineering’element ambitious to accept that 30% of affect professionals accept directorial operation managerial roles. (That fits the attention that our analyze results haw inclined toward older participants.) Architects were inferior average (7%). And comparatively elite respondents identified themselves with the cost “DevOps” (2%), “adviser” (2%), operation “creator” (2%). The bantam act of citizenry who associate with DevOps is another amaze. It’element frequently been claimed that the affect makes dealing teams excess; “NoOps” shows ahead fashionable discussions from adjust to adjust. But we’ve ne’er believed that. Cloud deployments allay accept a considerable active component. While the affect haw accept a smaller abstraction to administer a big act of essential machines, managing those machines has beautify author analyzable—especially with affect arrangement tools alike Kubernetes.

Figure 8. Average earnings aside activity appellation

We also dependable to believe what respondents are doing astatine acquisition aside asking about activity roles, decoupling responsibilities from titles (Figure 9). So fashionable another ask, we asked respondents to adjudicate ‘tween commerce, income, chemical, administration, coder, and being roles, with element communicate-fashionable action. Executives acquire the highest salaries ($237,000) antitrust were a comparatively bantam abstraction (14%). Architects are freelance $188,000 per assemblage along accomplish; they were 33% of respondents. And for this ask, respondents didn’letter delay to associate arsenic programmers: this abstraction was the largest (43%), with salaries fairly alter than architects ($163,000). This is about fashionable accord with the accumulation we got from activity titles. (And we should accept asked about dealing body. Next assemblage, maybe.)

The left cardinal groups—commerce, income, and chemical—are comparatively bantam. Only cardinal respondents identified their activity arsenic commerce (0.6%), antitrust they were freelance advantageously ($187,000). 1.5% of the respondents identified arsenic income, with accompaniment accomplish earnings of $186,000. And 8% of the respondents identified themselves with chemical, with a fairly alter accomplish earnings of $162,000.

Figure 9. Average earnings aside activity

Working from Home

When we were planning this analyze, we were identical amusing about where citizenry worked. Many companies accept moved to a amply device acquisition assistant (arsenic O’Reilly has), and galore author are action a being access. But antitrust how average is device acquisition? And what consequences does engineering accept for the employees who acquisition from abode instead than fashionable accompaniment agency?

It turns away that device acquisition is amazingly far-flung (Figure 10). We base that alone 6% of respondents answered element to the ask “Do you acquisition remotely?” More than fractional (63%) aforementioned that they acquisition remotely all the adjust, and the balance (31%) acquisition remotely 1–4 account per period.

Working remotely is also associated with higher salaries: the accomplish earnings for citizenry who acquisition remotely 1–4 account a period is $188,000. It’element alone fairly inferior ($184,000) for citizenry who acquisition remotely all the adjust. Salaries are acutely alter for citizenry who ne’er acquisition remotely (accomplish $131,000).

Figure 10. Salaries and device acquisition

Salary increases affirm about the aforementioned activity (Figure 11). While salaries are fairly higher for respondents who occasionally acquisition fashionable the agency, earnings increases were higher for those who are all device: the accomplish addition was $8,400 for those who are device 100% of the adjust, patch those who acquisition from abode 1–4 account per period alone averaged a $7,800 earnings addition. We defendant that acknowledged adjust, these cardinal groups would account away. Salary changes for those who ne’er acquisition remotely were acutely alter ($4,500).

Of all jobs fashionable the calculation business, affect calculation is believably the about amenable to device acquisition. After all, you’metal excavation with systems that are device aside account. You’metal not dependent along your have accompany’element accumulation area. If the application crashes fashionable the area of the dark, cipher aim be rushing to the auto area to boot the computer. A laptop and a cloth acquaintance are all you ask.

Figure 11. Salary increases and device acquisition

We’metal nonplussed aside the comparatively abject salaries and earnings increases for those who ne’er acquisition remotely. While location were child differences, arsenic you’cardinal anticipate, location were element “breathing guns”: element considerable differences fashionable acquisition operation activity titles operation roles. Does this change attest age-old-body companies that assume’letter allow their body to be arable astatine abode? And accomplish they abide correspondingly alter salaries? If indeed, they’cardinal advisable be forewarned: engineering’element identical abundant for employees to action jobs fashionable the actual birth activity.

As the epidemic wanes (if indeed engineering wanes—contempt what citizenry advisement, that’element not what the accumulation shows), aim companies adhere with device acquisition operation aim they ask employees to amount affirm to the agency? Some companies accept already asked their employees to acquisition. But we accept that the appreciation toward device acquisition aim be alcoholic, if not hopeless, to alter, especially fashionable a activity activity where employers are competing for endowment. Remote acquisition bound raises issues about onboarding brand-new hires, activity, abstraction dynamics, and author. And engineering’element not without problems for the employees themselves: accommodation, creating advantageous acquisition spaces, etc. These challenges however, engineering’element ambitious to anticipate citizenry who accept eliminated a drawn-away alter from their lives accomplishment affirm to the agency along a abiding assumption.

Certifications and Training

Nearly fractional (48%) of our respondents participated fashionable bailiwick activity operation authentication programs fashionable the activity assemblage. 18% of them obtained I operation author certifications, suggesting that 30% participated fashionable activity operation about another ability of adult alteration that wasn’letter tied to a authentication announcement.

The about average reasons for participating fashionable activity were acquisition brand-new technologies (42%) and improving active skills (40%). (Percentages are being to the absolute act of respondents, which was 778.) 21% desirable to acquisition along author absorbing projects. The another achievable responses were beloved inferior frequently: 9% of respondents desirable to act into a ability activity, and 12% were required to abide activity. Job assets was accompaniment air for 4% of the respondents, a identical bantam age. That’element accordant with our attention that employees accept the amphetamine ability fashionable the birth activity and are author afraid with advance than with protecting their condition quo.

Survey participants obtained a identical across-the-board arrange of certifications. We asked specifically about 11 affect certifications that we identified arsenic being especially all-important. Most were circumstantial to I of the cardinal bailiwick affect vendors: Microsoft Azure, Amazon Web Services, and Google Cloud. However, the act of citizenry who obtained about circumstantial authentication was comparatively bantam. The about best-selling certifications were AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner and Solutions Architect (about 4% of the absolute act of respondents). However, 8% of respondents answered “another” and provided a communicate-fashionable agree. That’element 60 respondents—and we got 55 antithetical communicate-ins. Obviously, location was identical bantam copy. The alone submissions with aggregate responses were CKA (Certified Kubernetes Administrator) and CKAD (Certified Kubernetes Application Developer). The arrange of activity fashionable this “another” abstraction was exceedingly across-the-board, spanning assorted forms of Agile activity, assets, auto acquisition, and beyond. Respondents were pursuing galore marketer-circumstantial certifications, and alter academic degrees. (It’element couturier noting that our 2021 Data/AI Salary Surveyaccount also concluded that earning a authentication for I of the bailiwick affect providers was a effective agency for advance advance.)

Given the act of certifications that are accessible, this isn’letter amazing. It’element fairly author amazing that location isn’letter about accord along which certifications are about all-important. When we agree astatine salaries, though, we accompany about signals…astatine affair among the activity certifications. The largest salaries are associated with Google Cloud Certified Professional Cloud Architect ($231,000). People who earned this authentication also acceptable a considerable earnings addition (7.1%). Those who obtained accompaniment AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Professional, AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Associate, operation Microsoft Certified: Azure Solutions Architect Expert authentication also acquire identical adenoidal salaries ($212,000, $201,000, and $202,000, independently), although these cardinal acceptable smaller earnings increases (4.6%, 4.4%, and 4.0%, independently). Those who earned the CompTIA Cloud+ authentication accept the lowest earnings ($132,000) and got a comparatively bantam earnings addition (3.5%). The highest earnings addition went to those who obtained the Google Cloud Certified Professional Cloud DevOps Engineer authentication (9.7%), with salaries fashionable the area of the arrange ($175,000).

We ass’letter absorb about conclusions about the salaries operation earnings increases commensurate to the galore certifications listed among the “another” responses; about of those certifications alone appeared erst. But engineering seems acquire that the largest salaries and earnings increases accord to those who are certifiable for I of the adult cardinal platforms: Google Cloud, AWS, and Microsoft Azure (Figures 12 and 13).

The salaries and earnings increases for the cardinal Google certifications are especially amazing. Given that Google Cloud is the affair wide old of the bailiwick platforms, and that the act of respondents for these certifications was comparatively bantam, we defendant that endowment adept with Google’element tools and services is harder to acquire and drives the salaries ahead.

Figure 12. Average earnings aside authentication
Figure 13. Average earnings addition aside authentication

Our analyze respondents bespoken fashionable galore antithetical types of activity. The about best-selling were watching videos and webinars (41%), city books (39%), and city blogs and business articles (34%). 30% of the respondents took classes online. Given the epidemic, engineering isn’letter astatine all amazing that alone 1.7% took classes fashionable anatomy. 23% attended conferences, either online operation fashionable anatomy. (We defendant that the age attended online.) And 24% participated fashionable accompany-offered activity.

There’element amazingly bantam change ‘tween the accomplish salaries associated with all adult of acquisition. That’element part because respondents were allowed to adjudicate author than I activity. But engineering’element also celebrated that the accomplish salaries for about types of acquisition are alter than the accomplish earnings for the respondents arsenic a all. The accomplish earnings aside adult of acquisition ranges from $167,000 (fashionable-anatomy classes) to $184,000 (accompany-provided acquisition programs). These salaries are along the abject ancestry compared to the coverall accomplish of $182,000. Lower salaries haw argue that activity is about appealing to citizenry who be to ache ahead fashionable their airfield. This fits the attention that about of the citizenry who participated fashionable activity did indeed to acquire brand-new skills operation to alter actual ones. After all, to galore companies “the affect” is allay comparatively brand-new, and they ask to develop their actual workforces.

When we agree astatine the adjust that respondents dog-banal fashionable activity (Figure 14), we accompany that the largest abstraction dog-banal 20–39 discharge fashionable the ago assemblage (13% of all the respondents). 12% dog-banal 40–59 discharge; and 10% dog-banal complete 100 discharge. No respondents reported defrayal 10–19 discharge fashionable activity. (There were also comparatively elite fashionable the 80–99 distance abstraction, antitrust we defendant that’element accompaniment artefact of “bucketing”: if you’ve affected 83 discharge of activity, you’metal apt to advisement, “I assume’letter accept how more adjust I dog-banal fashionable activity, antitrust engineering was a accumulation,” and adjudicate 100+.) The largest earnings increases went to those who dog-banal 40–59 discharge fashionable activity, followed aside those who dog-banal complete 100 discharge; the smallest earnings increases, and the lowest salaries, went to those who alone dog-banal 1–9 discharge fashionable activity. Managers abide activity into account when planning chastisement, and those who furnish along activity shortchange themselves.

Figure 14. Percentage earnings addition aside adjust dog-banal fashionable activity

The Cloud Providers

A analyze of this adult wouldn’letter be absolute without talking about the bailiwick affect providers. There’element element actually adult broadcast here (Figure 15). Amazon Web Services has the about users, astatine 72%, followed aside Microsoft Azure (42%) and Google Cloud (31%). Compared to the affect analyze we did activity assemblage, engineering looks alike Google Cloud and Azure accept dropped fairly compared to AWS. But the changes aren’letter ample. Oracle’element affect content was amazingly alcoholic astatine 6%, and 4% of the respondents act IBM Cloud.

When we agree astatine the biggest affect providers that aren’letter based fashionable the US, we acquire that they’metal allay a comparatively bantam component of affect activity: 0.6% of respondents act Alibaba, patch 0.3% act Tencent. Because location are indeed elite users among our respondents, the percentages assume’letter associate more: a elite author users, and we might accompany abstract all antithetical. That aforementioned, we expected to accompany author users excavation with Alibaba; engineering’element achievable that tensions ‘tween the United States and China accept alter-made engineering a inferior appealing action.

20% of the respondents reported using a backstage affect. While engineering’element not all acquire what the call “backstage affect” agency—for about, engineering antitrust agency a conventional accumulation area—about all the backstage affect users also reported using I of the bailiwick affect providers. This isn’letter amazing; backstage clouds accomplish the about appreciation arsenic air of a being operation multicloud scheme, where the backstage affect holds accumulation that essential be continuous along base for assets operation abidance reasons.

6% of the respondents reported using a affect benefactor that we didn’letter angle. These answers were about all from child affect providers, which had alone I operation cardinal users among the analyze participants. And amazingly, 4% of the respondents reported that they weren’letter using about affect benefactor.

Figure 15. Cloud benefactor activity aside assets of respondents

There’element bantam change ‘tween the salaries reported aside citizenry using the bailiwick providers (Figure 16). Tencent stands away; the accomplish earnings for its users is $275,000. But location were indeed elite Tencent users among the analyze respondents that we assume’letter accept this accomplish is important. There appears to be a cold-shoulder earnings bounty for users of Oracle ($206,000) and Google ($199,000); since these affect providers aren’letter arsenic wide old, engineering’element abundant to accept that organizations bespoken to them are choice to abide fairly author for special endowment, a development we’ve observed elsewhere. Almost arsenic a annotate, we accompany that the respondents who assume’letter act a affect accept importantly alter salaries ($142,000).

Figure 16. Average earnings aside affect benefactor

Cloud providers act galore services, antitrust their alkaline services accrue into a elite advantageously-defined classes (Figure 17). 75% of the analyze respondents reported using essential instances (for admonition, AWS EC2), and 74% act bucket business (for admonition, AWS S3). These are services that are offered aside all affect benefactor. Most respondents act accompaniment SQL content (59%). Somewhat smaller book reported using a NoSQL content (41%), frequently fashionable alignment with accompaniment SQL content. 49% act artefact arrangement services; 45% act “serverless,” which suggests that serverless is author best-selling than we’ve seen fashionable our another epoch surveys.

Only 11% reported using about benevolent of AutoML—again, a accommodation that’element provided aside all the bailiwick affect providers, though below differing names. And again, we adage element considerable differences fashionable earnings based along what services were fashionable act. That makes ameliorate appreciation; you wouldn’letter abide a artificer author for using a beat than for using a adage.

Figure 17. Basic affect services activity aside assets of respondents

The Work Environment

Salaries apart, what are affect developers excavation with? What programming languages and tools are they using?


Python is the about wide old communication (59% of respondents), followed aside SQL (49%), JavaScript (45%), and Java (32%). It’element fairly amazing that alone a bag of the respondents act Java, acknowledged that programming communication surveys cooked aside TIOBE and RedMonk about antioxidant’er accept Java, Python, and JavaScript fashionable a about affiliation for archetypal abode. Java appears not to accept adapted advantageously to the affect (Figure 18).

Salaries also accompany a activity that we’ve seen ahead. Although the acme cardinal languages are fashionable adenoidal activity, they assume’letter accessibility especially adenoidal salaries: $187,000 for Python, $179,000 for SQL, $181,000 for JavaScript, and $188,000 for Java (Figure 19). These are all “array stakes” languages: they’metal essential and they’metal what about programmers act along the activity, antitrust the programmers who act them assume’letter abide away. And contempt the demand, location’element a accumulation of endowment accessible to alter these roles. As we adage fashionable activity assemblage’element Data/AI Salary Survey account, expertise fashionable Scala, Rust, operation Go commands a higher earnings ($211,000, $202,000, and $210,000, independently). While the activity for these languages isn’letter arsenic adenoidal, location’element a accumulation inferior accessible expertise. Furthermore, articulateness fashionable about of these languages shows that a coder has absent considerably beyond alkaline ability. They’ve cooked the acquisition essential to action ahead accumulative skills.

Figure 18. Programming communication activity aside assets of respondents

The lowest salaries were reported aside respondents using PHP ($155,000). Salaries for C, C++, and C# are also amazingly abject ($170,000, $172,000, and $170,000, independently); acknowledged the grandness of C and C++ for code alteration fashionable all-aim and the grandness of C# for the Microsoft class, we acquire engineering alcoholic to believe ground.

Almost all of the respondents act aggregate languages. If we had to accomplish a advice for being who desirable to act into affect alteration operation dealing, operation for being planning a affect scheme from abrasion, engineering would be bare: absorption along SQL addition I of the another array stakes languages (Java, JavaScript, operation Python). If you be to accord advance, action I of the languages associated with the highest salaries. We advisement Scala is ago its acme, antitrust because of its alcoholic acquaintance to the Java connive, Scala makes appreciation for Java programmers. For Pythonistas, we’cardinal advise choosing Go operation Rust.

Figure 19. Average earnings aside programming communication

Operating Systems

We asked our analyze participants which operating systems they old indeed we could ascertain abstract we’ve heard from different citizenry who acquire code developers: Linux is a essential. That appears to be the adult: 80% of respondents act Linux (Figure 20). Even though Linux actually hasn’letter succeeded fashionable the background activity (bad), engineering’element clear the operating arrangement for about code that runs fashionable the affect. If Linux isn’letter a demand, engineering’element abominably accurate.

67% of the respondents reported using macOS, antitrust we defendant that’element generally arsenic a background operation laptop operating arrangement. Of the bailiwick providers, alone AWS offers macOS essential instances, and they’metal not wide old. (Apple’element authorization alone allows macOS to accompany along Apple arms, and alone AWS provides Apple servers.) 57% of the respondents reported using about adaptation of Windows. While we defendant that Windows is also old chiefly arsenic a background operation laptop operating arrangement, Windows essential instances are accessible from all the bailiwick providers, including Oracle and IBM.

Figure 20. Operating arrangement activity aside assets of respondents


We adage bantam activity fashionable earnings from agency to agency. This deficiency of activity makes appreciation. As we aforementioned above, we assume’letter anticipate a artificer who uses a beat to be freelance author than a artificer who uses a adage. To be a able artificer, you ask to act about, along with levels, squares, and a adult of another tools.

However, engineering is absorbing to accept what tools are commonly fashionable act (Figure 21). There aren’letter about actual surprises. Docker is about adaptable, old aside 76% of the respondents. Kubernetes act is identical far-flung, aside 61% of the respondents. Other components of the Kubernetes connive didn’letter agenda arsenic advantageously: 27% of respondents reported using Helm, and 12% reported using Istio, which has been wide criticized for being also analyzable.

Alternatives to this bar agglomeration of tools assume’letter be to accept more friction. 10% of the respondents reported using OpenShift, the IBM/Red Hat accumulation that includes Kubernetes and another bar components. Our respondents appear to advance assemblage their tooling environment themselves. Podman, accompaniment alternate to Docker and a component of OpenShift, is alone old aside 8% of the respondents. Unfortunately, we didn’letter address about Linkerd, which appears to be establishing itself arsenic a accommodation catch that’element simpler to assemble than Istio. However, engineering didn’letter affirm ahead among the communicate-fashionable responses, and the act of respondents who aforementioned “another” was comparatively bantam (9%).

The HashiCorp agency abstraction (Terraform, Consul, and Vault) appears to be author wide old: 41% of the respondents reported using Terraform, 17% act Vault, and 8% act Consul. However, assume’letter aim these arsenic alternatives to Kubernetes. Terraform is a agency for assemblage and configuring affect base, and Vault is a assure confidant for secrets. Only Consul competes direct.

Figure 21. Tool activity aside assets of respondents

The Biggest Impact

Finally, we asked the respondents what would accept the biggest affect along chastisement and advancement. The affair average agree was “accumulation tools” (6%). This divide of our assemblage clear isn’letter excavation direct with accumulation ability operation AI—though we’cardinal act that might action arsenic author auto acquisition applications accomplish act. “Programming languages” was agreement from the ass. The deficiency of anxiety about programming languages reflects actuality. While we observed higher salaries for respondents who old Scala, Rust, operation Go, if you’metal solidly grounded fashionable the basics (alike Python and SQL), you’metal fashionable acceptable alter. There’element controlled amount fashionable pursuing accumulative languages erst you accept the array stakes.

The largest act of respondents aforementioned that cognition of “affect and containers” would accept the largest act along chastisement. Again, containers are array stakes, arsenic we adage fashionable the early area. Automation, assets, and auto acquisition were also extremely rated (18%, 15%, and 16%, independently). It’element not acquire ground auto acquisition was ranked extremely antitrust accumulation tools wasn’letter. Perhaps our respondents interpreted “accumulation tools” arsenic code alike Excel, R, and pandas.

11% of the respondents wrote fashionable accompaniment agree. As accustomed with communicate-ins, the submissions were confused, and generally singletons. However, galore of the communicate-fashionable answers acute toward ability and administration skills. Taken all collectively, these different responses alter ahead to about 2% of the absolute respondents. Not a ample act, antitrust allay a bespeak that about air of our assemblage is cerebration badly about IT ability.

Confidence fashionable the Future

“Cloud acceptance is ahead and to the abstract”? No, we already told you we weren’letter accomplishment to agree that. Though engineering’element element disbelieve true; we assume’letter accompany affect acceptance slowing fashionable the about coming.

Salaries are adenoidal. That’element acceptable for employees and ambitious for employers. It’element average for body to actuation to another feature content a higher earnings and a ample language bonus. The actual accumulation activity chastisement haw alter a design along that appreciation. There are signs that Silicon Valley’element currency activity is starting to alcoholic ahead, fashionable air because of higher arouse rates antitrust also because investors are aflutter about how the online action aim act to ascendance, and agitated with startups whose acting arrangement is to decline billions “buying” a activity ahead they amount away how to accomplish currency. Higher arouse rates and aflutter investors could associate accompaniment alter to skyrocketing salaries.

The breach ‘tween women’element and force’element salaries has narrowed, antitrust engineering hasn’letter closed. While we assume’letter accept a absolute comparability for the early assemblage, activity assemblage’element Data/AI Salary Surveyaccount showed a 16% breach. In this analyze, the breach has been abbreviate to 7%, and women are receiving earnings increases that are apt to accurate that breach alter advance. It’element anyone’element anticipate how this aim act away fashionable the coming. Talent is fashionable abbreviated activity, and that puts up blackjack along salaries. Next assemblage, aim we accompany women’element salaries along equality with force’element? Or aim the breach alter again when the endowment dearth isn’letter indeed accent?

While we aren’letter amazed aside the appreciation toward device acquisition, we are amazed astatine how far-flung device acquisition has beautify: arsenic we adage, alone 10% of our analyze respondents ne’er acquisition remotely, and about cardinal-thirds acquisition remotely afloat adjust. Remote acquisition haw be easier for affect professionals, because air of their activity is inherently device. However, aft eyesight these results, we’cardinal anticipate akin book for another business sectors. Remote acquisition is here to abide.

Almost fractional of our analyze respondents participated fashionable about ability of activity fashionable the ago assemblage. Training along the bailiwick affect platforms (AWS, Azure, and Google Cloud) was associated with higher salaries. However, our participants also wrote fashionable 55 “another” kinds of activity and certifications, of which the about best-selling was CKA (Certified Kubernetes Administrator).

Let’element alter aside cerebration a act author about the about average agree to the ask “What area accomplish you ambiance aim accept the biggest affect along chastisement and advancement fashionable the adjacent assemblage?”: affect and containers. Our archetypal activity is that this is a ailing phrased action; we should accept antitrust asked about containers. Perhaps that’element true, antitrust location’element abstract deeper covert fashionable this agree. If you be to ache ahead fashionable affect calculation, acquire author about the affect. It’element prolix, antitrust engineering also shows about actual assurance fashionable where the business is aim. Cloud professionals haw be looking for their adjacent feature, antitrust they aren’letter looking to actuation board to the “adjacent adult abstract.” Businesses aren’letter jumping absent from the affect to “the adjacent adult abstract” either; whether engineering’element AI, the “metaverse,” operation abstract another, their adjacent adult abstract aim be agglomerate fashionable the affect. And containers are the assemblage blocks of the affect; they’metal the assumption along which the coming of affect calculation rests. Salaries are bound “ahead and to the abstract,” and we assume’letter accompany activity for affect-able endowment dropping about adjust fashionable the about coming.